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Anti-Avoidance Measures
Strategic IP Tax Planning

Intellectual Property (IP)

In today’s era of innovation and globalization, intellectual property (IP) has emerged as a potent driver of wealth creation. Innovative IP now underpins the growth of at least 75 industries, as highlighted by the World Economic Forum. As businesses continue to expand globally, multinational corporations (MNCs) are strategically positioning their profitable IP rights in low-tax jurisdictions to mitigate their overall tax liabilities.

However, in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, cash-strapped nations have intensified their pursuit of additional revenue, focusing on what they perceive as ‘Corporate tax avoidance’ by MNCs that are not contributing their ‘fair share’ of taxes.

The taxation of IP rights has become a prime target for tax authorities, leading to audits, transfer-pricing disputes, and calls for a fundamental overhaul of how IP profits are taxed on a global scale. At the forefront of this movement is the OECD’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) initiative.

BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting)

Under the BEPS initiative, the OECD is advocating the establishment of ‘new international standards’ for international taxation, with a significant portion of its focus on the taxation of IP profits. The BEPS initiative asserts that MNCs engage in planning that distorts the global economy by allowing corporate profits to go untaxed. It emphasizes the need for improved transfer-pricing rules to combat these practices, particularly concerning IP profit shifting.

The initiative specifically proposes the adoption of more stringent substance and transparency rules for entities looking to benefit from preferential regimes, including IP tax regimes. It also suggests linking the taxation of IP-related profits to the jurisdictions where IP is created.

Although achieving a consensus among 34 nations with varying tax-policy objectives remains challenging, the BEPS initiative reflects global dissatisfaction with the inadequate taxation of IP profits. High-profile public hearings, such as those involving major technology companies like Apple before the US Congress, and Starbucks and Google before the UK Parliament, highlight the increased scrutiny of IP tax planning.

Furthermore, many countries are tightening regulations on IP taxation rights, with a heightened emphasis on economic substance. This approach requires that economic or business considerations, rather than mere tax benefits, be the primary driving force behind any changes in the location of IP.

Examples include the recent inclusion of the economic substance doctrine in US tax law, with policymakers highlighting instances of IP rights being transferred to shell companies lacking personnel or operational activities as tax “gimmicks.”

The European Union (EU) is also pushing for the standardization of the General Anti-Abuse Rule to make it applicable to a wider range of “aggressive” tax schemes that lack genuine business or economic motivations.

Sustainable IP Tax Planning and Adapting to New Regulations

Keeping Competitiveness

Incorporating Favorable International Intangible Property Structures into Tax Planning To remain competitive, many multinational corporations are exploring restructuring options to reduce tax liabilities associated with income derived from intangible property (IP).

Sustainable IP tax planning must be resilient in the face of these evolving regulations. In practical terms, this means aligning IP tax planning with management and economic activities, especially concerning IP profits. This approach aligns well with most national economic policies.

Irrespective of their specific policies, nearly all countries acknowledge the importance of attracting innovation, along with related IP rights, talent, and investments, as key drivers of future growth. Many nations offer tax incentives to attract IP and the associated profits, jobs, and capital. The EU’s Lisbon Strategy, aimed at fostering a knowledge-based economy, has been a driving force behind current EU IP box policies.

National Economic Policies

Future developments suggest potential alignment between low-taxed IP activities and the hosting country’s interests. This implies that IP tax planning should be integrated with other considerations that build a compelling case for relocating IP to a specific jurisdiction.

Relevant factors include a stable and flexible legal framework, the ability to attract key talent (such as executives, engineers, and developers) through incentives like personal tax rates, access to quality education, and an attractive quality of life. Additionally, the hosting country’s infrastructure and operational costs may become critical factors. For R&D activities, the presence of a critical mass of talent or legal flexibility for rapid migration may be essential considerations.

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